Today's Highlight in History:
On August 13, 1913, British metallurgist Harry Brearley developed an alloy that came to be known as "stainless steel." (Although Brearley is often credited as the "inventor" of stainless steel, he was hardly alone in working to create steel that resisted corrosion.)
On this date:
In 1521, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez captured Tenochtitlan, present-day Mexico City, from the Aztecs.
In 1624, King Louis XIII of France appointed Cardinal Richelieu his first minister.
In 1792, French revolutionaries imprisoned the royal family.
In 1846, the American flag was raised for the first time in Los Angeles.
In 1910, Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, died in London at age 90.
In 1923, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was again elected Speaker of Turkey's Grand Assembly.
In 1934, the satirical comic strip "Li'l Abner," created by Al Capp, made its debut.
In 1942, Walt Disney's animated feature "Bambi" had its U.S. premiere at Radio City Music Hall in New York, five days after its world premiere in London.
In 1960, the first two-way telephone conversation by satellite took place with the help of Echo 1. The Central African Republic became totally independent of French rule.
In 1961, East Germany sealed off the border between Berlin's eastern and western sectors and began building a wall that would stand for the next 28 years.
In 1981, in a ceremony at his California ranch, President Ronald Reagan signed a historic package of tax and budget reductions.
In 1989, searchers in Ethiopia found the wreckage of a plane which had disappeared almost a week earlier while carrying Rep. Mickey Leland, D-Texas, and 14 other people — there were no survivors.
Ten years ago: Iraq began pumping crude oil from its northern oil fields for the first time since the start of the war. Libya agreed to set up a $2.7 billion fund for families of the 270 people killed in the 1988 Pan Am bombing.
Five years ago: A man barged into the Arkansas Democratic headquarters in Little Rock and opened fire, killing state party chairman Bill Gwatney before speeding off in a pickup. (Police later shot and killed the gunman, Timothy Dale Johnson.) Michael Phelps swam into history as the winningest Olympic athlete ever with his 10th and 11th career gold medals. Phelps won the 200-meter butterfly, then swam the leadoff of a runaway victory by the U.S. 800 freestyle relay team. Sandy Allen, who was recognized as the world's tallest female at 7 feet, 7 inches tall, died in Shelbyville, Ind., at age 53.
One year ago: A routine serving of an eviction notice to a man living near the Texas A&M University campus turned deadly when the resident opened fire, leading to the death of a law enforcement officer and another man before the gunman was killed. The Mayo Clinic announced that U.S. Rep. Jesse Jackson Jr., a Chicago Democrat who'd taken a hushed medical leave, was being treated for bipolar disorder. Helen Gurley Brown, 90, the longtime editor of Cosmopolitan magazine, died in New York. The Boston Red Sox's unofficial goodwill ambassador, Johnny Pesky, died at age 92.
Today's Birthdays: Former Cuban President Fidel Castro is 87. Actor Pat Harrington is 84. Former U.S. Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders is 80. Actor Kevin Tighe is 69. Actress Gretchen Corbett is 66. Opera singer Kathleen Battle is 65. High wire aerialist Philippe Petit is 64. Hockey Hall of Famer Bobby Clarke is 64. Golf Hall of Famer Betsy King is 58. Movie director Paul Greengrass is 58. Actor Danny Bonaduce is 54. TV host/weatherman Sam Champion (TV: "Good Morning America") is 52. Actress Dawnn Lewis is 52. Actor John Slattery is 51. Actress Debi Mazar is 49. Actress Quinn Cummings is 46. Actress Seana Kofoed is 43. Country singer Andy Griggs is 40. Country musician Mike Melancon (Emerson Drive) is 35. Actress Kathryn Fiore is 34. Pop-rock singer James Morrison is 29. Actress Lennon Stella (TV: "Nashville") is 14.
Thought for Today: "It is always too late, or too little, or both. And that is the road to disaster." — David Lloyd George, English statesman (1863-1945).