The Miami Beach Planning Board voted 6-1 to approve the urgent care and mixed-medical facility at 709 Alton Road.
The project was proposed by the partnership of Baptist Health and Crescent Heights.
Tuesday's vote came months after originally anticipated, due in part to local opposition.
More than two dozen Miami Beach residents, community activists and representatives of local nonprofit organizations spoke in favor of 709 Alton Road prior to the vote.
"We are thrilled that the Planning Board finally voted to allow this important project to move forward," said Marisa Galbut of Crescent Heights. "The 709 Alton Road/Baptist Health center will bring much needed, quality, medical care directly to the heart of South Beach."
Nearby Mount Sinai Hospital petitioned to stop the deal, claiming they could potentially lose patients to the center, and the new center could potentially cause major traffic problems in the South Beach area.